The Abyssinian Crisis – 1936

The next conflict we will focus on now, is the Abyssinian Crisis.

As we did with the Manchurian Crisis, we will work on recorded evidence and in this case, we will be able to listen to witnesses of the event and their impressions on what happened.

Questions:

  • WHAT WAS THE ITALIAN EMPIRE LIKE BY 1930?

The Italian empire was insignificant compared with other powerful empires succh as Britain and France

  • HOW DID SENATOR GIORGIO PISANO EXPLAIN ITALY’S ATTITUDE FOR CONQUEST?

Senator Giorgio Pisano couldn’t understand why they shouldn’t conquer Ethiopia, while England and France were conquering the middle East, India and others places of the world.

  • WHAT IS ABYSSINIA TODAY? WHAT WAS THE SITUATION BY 1930?

Abyssinia today is Ethiopia, by 1930 she was very poor, she was going backwards and she practiced slavery.

  • WHAT EXCUSE DID MUSSOLINI HAVE TO CONQUER ABYSSINIA?

Mussolini’s excuse to conquer Abyssinia was that he needed raw materials and land because of the fact that the population was incrising.

  • WHAT WAS THE ROLE OF FRANCE AND GREAT BRITAIN IN ITALY’S INVASION?

Before beginning his expansion into Ethiopia, Mussolini asked  Britain and France for their permission. On the hand hand, France accepted, but on the other hand, Britain was ambigous.

  • WHAT EVIDENCE DOES MUSSOLINI’S DAUGHTER PROVIDE?

Mussolini’s daughter told everyone that they were going to Ethiopia. She asked McDonald, who was the prime minister at that time, if the English would go to war (that was her main concern). He answered “no”. So she asked if they were going to take any action. And the prime minister respond “ofcourse, but we won’t make war”

  • WHAT DID YOUNG SOLDIERS BELIEVE WAS THEIR DUTY TOWARDS ITALY?

Young soldiers believed their duty was to unificate Italy and to make it greater

  • WHAT WAS CONTROVERSIAL ABOUT THE USE OF POISON GAS BY THE ITALIANS?

Mussolini, seven years before he made a secret treaty improving the use of Poison Gas, had not only renounced to it, but it had also called it uncivilized.

  • WHAT DID THE LEAGUE DECIDE TO DO? HOW EFFECTIVE WERE THOSE MEASURES?

The League decided to impose limited sanctions to Mussolini’s actions, however, those  weren’t military’s. So Italy conquered Abyssinia, so those measures weren’t efective.

  • HOW DID ORDINARY PEOPLE REACTION TO SANCTIONS?

Ordinary people believed the sanctions were unfair and that they were an obstacle for Italy to recover.

The Manchuria Crisis in process

In history we are staring a new topic: the work of the League of Nations in the 1930s. So today we are going to learn about the 1st incident: the Japanesse invation to Manchuria in 1931. Our history teacher, Lenny, gave us a task. We had to see the following video and answer some questions.

Questions:

  1. How does the video open? What might the connection between the League and the opening scenes in Poland be?
  2. What problems did Japan face? (Mention ALL of them)
  3. What was the role of the army in Japan?
  4. What did army leaders believe Japan needed?
  5. What was the value of Manchuria?
  6. What happened at Mudken?
  7. What did the League do about it?
  8. What was Japan’s reaction to the decision of the League?

Answers:

  1. The video is open by saying the reasons of how the League failed during the 1930s: in maintaining peace and avoiding war. It also showed Poland in 1939 and it says that the second world war started. The connection between Poland and the League was that both
  2. The problems that Japan faced were the followings…

Japan had suffered more than most from The Great depression

Japan was an isolated country from trade

Japan did not have natural resources from her own to exploit, and her population was booming

In 1930s unemployment was very high

3. The politicians took second place to the army. The Japanese army controlled the education system. Their main objectives was to expansion there territory. Japanese believed that territory in Asia would benefit their empire.

4. Army leaders believed that Japan needed natural resources

5. Manchuria was mostly barren, but it was rich in natural resources, which Japanese desperately needed for its economy.

6. There was an explosion at Mukden, so Japanese used that conflict as an excuse to invade Manchuria. They invaded Manchuria and not another place because they needed more natural resources and more space for it population. Manchuria was the perfect place to do that.

7.  China appealed to the Leauge, who finally decided that Japan should leave Manchuria and become a semi-independent nation free from China and Japan.

8. Japan leave the League of Nations because she wanted to have Manchuria, and leaving the League meant that nobody would intervene.